Adelina Patti, original name Adela Juana Maria Patti, (born Feb. 19, 1843, Madrid, Spain—died Sept. 27, 1919, Craig-y-Nos Castle, Brecknockshire, Wales), Italian soprano who was one of the great coloratura singers of the 19th century.
Patti was the daughter of two singers—Salvatore Patti, a tenor, and Caterina Chiesa Barilli-Patti, a soprano. As a child she went to the United States, and she appeared in concerts in New York City from age seven. After spending several years touring North and South America and the West Indies, in November 1859 she made her operatic debut as Lucia in Gaetano Donizetti’s Lucia di Lammermoor at the New York Academy of Music. Two years later she traveled to London, where her debut as Amina in Vincenzo Bellini’s La sonnambula was a sensation. For the next 23 years she was a Covent Garden regular. She sang many roles in the operas of Bellini, Gioachino Rossini, Giacomo Meyerbeer, and Charles Gounod, among others, as well as in several of the early operas of Giuseppe Verdi.
Patti’s pure, sweet soprano and dazzling technique conquered all who heard her. Her voice was considered small but was remarkable for its wide range, evenness of production, and purity of quality. Verdi declared her the greatest singer he had ever heard, and others—from musicians to royalty to a unanimously adulatory opera public—eagerly concurred. She was without doubt the supreme exponent of bel canto and coloratura in her day. She was also a notable actress and achieved her greatest successes in comedy, especially in the roles of Dinorah in Meyerbeer’s Dinorah, Zerlina in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Don Giovanni, and Rosina in Rossini’s The Barber of Seville, Rossini having arranged much of the music of this part expressly for her.
From 1881 to 1904 Patti made a series of annual tours of the United States. Her official farewell appearance occurred at the Royal Albert Hall, London, in December 1906, but she continued to make occasional appearances.