I have been on a chamber music kick. I only have a few more to post, and then I will get back to voice. In this post, I will present the Brahms Quintet in G major, Op.111, played by the Budapest Quartet. The musicians were: Josef Roisman, violin; Alexander Schneider, violin; István Ipolyi, viola; Mischa Schneider, cello; and Hans Mahlke, viola II. This recording was made November 15, 17, and 18, 1932
The String Quartet
As early as the 1850s, Robert Schumann wrote prophetically of Johannes Brahms as a messiah who would not so much emerge gradually, but would instead reveal himself at once in his full artistic maturity. Schumann’s prediction was dead on, as Brahms’ works would reveal an overall consistency of quality and stylistic singularity rivaled only by Bach. And many make the comparison, noting the similarities between these two giants who both stood at the twilights of their respective eras. The culmination of the Baroque period in the works of Bach is not unlike that of Brahms in 19th-century Vienna: an ideal balance of form and expression. Both composers would be regarded by the end of their lives as old-fashioned and out of touch with their times, writing music whose emphasis on structural integrity and polyphony was regarded as unfashionably cerebral and academic.
The remarkable consistency of Brahms’ output over the span of his career has certainly contributed to the impressive ratio of total composed works to those regarded as standard repertoire. In every genre Brahms made a lasting contribution; whether it be an orchestral or choral concert, chamber, vocal, or solo recital, the odds favor Brahms perhaps more than any other composer (Mozart and Beethoven are close contenders) as a likely name on the program.
As a composer of string-intensive chamber music, Brahms’ range encompassed everything from the violin and cello sonatas and the piano trios all the way up to the string quintets and sextets. Like Mozart, Brahms favored the two violins/two violas/ one cello combination for his string quintets (Boccherini and Schubert preferred a combination with one viola and two cellos).
A late work, the String Quintet in G major, Op. 111, dates from 1890, the last decade of Brahms’ life. Brahmsian hallmarks pervade the work on all levels, from the cross accents and hemiolas in the opening 9/8 movement, to the bittersweet melancholy of the D-minor Adagio. Typically Brahmsian is the Allegretto intermezzo, which serves as a scherzo surrogate. The Hungarian folk element of the finale reminds us of the lighter side of the composer of the celebrated Hungarian Dances.
Johannes Brahms, (born May 7, 1833, Hamburg [Germany]—died April 3, 1897, Vienna, Austria-Hungary [now in Austria]), was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period, who wrote symphonies, concerti, chamber music, piano works, choral compositions, and more than 200 songs. Brahms was the great master of symphonic and sonata style in the second half of the 19th century. He can be viewed as the protagonist of the Classical tradition of Joseph Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven in a period when the standards of this tradition were being questioned or overturned by the Romantics.
The chief of these was the nature of Schumann’s encomium itself. There was already conflict between the “neo-German” school, dominated by Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner, and the more conservative elements, whose main spokesman was Schumann. The latter’s praise of Brahms displeased the former, and Brahms himself, though kindly received by Liszt, did not conceal his lack of sympathy with the self-conscious modernists. He was therefore drawn into controversy, and most of the disturbances in his otherwise uneventful personal life arose from this situation. Gradually Brahms came to be on close terms with the Schumann household, and, when Schumann was first taken mentally ill in 1854, Brahms assisted Clara Schumann in managing her family. He appears to have fallen in love with her; but, though they remained deep friends after Schumann’s death in 1856, their relationship did not, it seems, go further.
Between 1857 and 1860 Brahms moved between the court of Detmold—where he taught the piano and conducted a choral society—and Göttingen, while in 1859 he was appointed conductor of a women’s choir in Hamburg. Such posts provided valuable practical experience and left him enough time for his own work.
By 1861 he was back in Hamburg, and in the following year he made his first visit to Vienna, with some success. Having failed to secure the post of conductor of the Hamburg Philharmonic concerts, he settled in Vienna in 1863, assuming direction of the Singakademie, a fine choral society. His life there was on the whole regular and quiet, disturbed only by the ups and downs of his musical success, by altercations occasioned by his own quick temper and by the often virulent rivalry between his supporters and those of Wagner and Anton Bruckner, and by one or two inconclusive love affairs. His music, despite a few failures and constant attacks by the Wagnerites, was established, and his reputation grew steadily. By 1872 he was principal conductor of the Society of Friends of Music (Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde), and for three seasons he directed the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. His choice of music was not as conservative as might have been expected, and though the “Brahmins” continued their war against Wagner, Brahms himself always spoke of his rival with respect. Brahms is sometimes portrayed as unsympathetic toward his contemporaries. His kindness to Antonín Dvořák is always acknowledged, but his encouragement even of such a composer as the young Gustav Mahler is not always realized, and his enthusiasm for Carl Nielsen’s First Symphony is not generally known.
In between these two appointments in Vienna, Brahms’s work flourished and some of his most significant works were composed. The year 1868 witnessed the completion of his most famous choral work, Ein deutsches Requiem (A German Requiem).
Gradually Brahms’s renown spread beyond Germany and Austria. Switzerland and the Netherlands showed true appreciation of his art, and Brahms’s concert tours to these countries as well as to Hungary and Poland won great acclaim. The University of Breslau (now the University of Wrocław, Poland) conferred an honorary degree on him in 1879. The composer thanked the university by writing the Academic Festival Overture (1881) based on various German student songs. Among his other orchestral works at this time were the Violin Concerto in D Major (1878) and the Piano Concerto No. 2 in B-flat Major (1881).
Brahms remained in Vienna for the rest of his life. He resigned as director of the Society of Friends of Music in 1875, and from then on devoted his life almost solely to composition. When he went on concert tours, he conducted or performed (on the piano) only his own works. He maintained a few close personal friendships and remained a lifelong bachelor. He spent his summers traveling in Italy, Switzerland, and Austria. During these years Brahms composed the boldly conceived Double Concerto in A Minor (1887) for violin and cello, the powerful Piano Trio No. 3 in C Minor (1886), and the Violin Sonata in D Minor (1886–88). He also completed the radiantly joyous first String Quintet in F Major (1882) and the energetic second String Quintet in G Major (1890).
The Budapest String Quartet
“One Russian is an anarchist. Two Russians are a chess game. Three Russians are a revolution. Four Russians are the Budapest String Quartet.” Or so went the witticism attributed to Jascha Heifetz. But this was not always the case. In 1917, when four players from the Budapest Opera Orchestra formed the quartet, it consisted of three Hungarians (Emil Hauser, Alfred Indig and Istvan Ipolyi, all Hubay pupils) and a Dutchman (Harry Son, who had studied with Popper). The ensemble was founded upon certain ground rules: unusually for the time, the members would confine their activities only to the quartet; and interpretational disputes would be resolved by majority vote, with ties broken by a designated repertoire specialist.
When Indig left in 1920, he was replaced by another Hungarian, Imre Pogany. It was this configuration which first entered the recording studio in 1924. HMV producer Fred Gaisberg was keen to compete with Columbia’s Budapest-based Lener Quartet.
The Russian infiltration began in the latter half of 1927. Pogany had left to join Fritz Reiner’s Cincinnati Symphony (he would later move on to Toscanini’s New York Philharmonic) and was replaced by Odessa-born Joseph Roisman. Roisman had studied in both his native city and Berlin, and brought a different approach that from early on challenged the Hungarians’ status quo.
In 1930, Harry Son left the quartet and moved to Palestine. (He was later to return to Rotterdam, ultimately becoming a victim of the Holocaust.) His position was taken in 1931 by the second Russian, Mischa Schneider. Roisman now found an ally in his interpretive disputes, and by 1932, Hauser decided to leave, selling his Guarnerius to Roisman and eventually becoming a well-regarded teacher, both in Israel and the United States. With Roisman now as leader, Alexander Schneider, Mischa’s brother, was engaged for the second violin spot. Ipolyi soldiered on for several more years before leaving in 1936 to be replaced by another Odessa native, Boris Kroyt. He became a teacher and author, eventually settling in Norway.
The early quartet’s recordings have had only spotty availability in extended-play format. Their 1927 Beethoven Grosse Fuge appeared on an EMI Références LP and a Biddulph CD. The latter also contained nearly all the rest of the quartet’s Beethoven recordings, including Opp. 130 and 59/1. A CD on the Novello label featured the Schubert, Mendelssohn, Borodin and Dvořák presented here, along with the “Andante cantabile” from Tchaikovsky’s First Quartet. The Haydn, Dittersdorf, Mozart and Tchaikovsky Second Quartet make their first appearances here since the 78 rpm era.