Cazette was born Victor Louis Camille Peault in Nantes. His family moved to Paris when he was quite young and received early musical training in Paris. He enlisted in the army but pursued his musical studies. He entered the Paris Conservatory in 1912 where he received vocal instruction by Emile Engel and Albert Saléza. His last teacher was the Dutch bass Jan Reder. He received three prizes in 1914 and after his graduation he was contracted by the Opéra-Comique. World War I broke out, and he had to serve in the army. Upon demobilization in 1919, he was almost immediately called to the Opéra-Comique, where he made his debut on June 14, 1919, as Le Noctambule in Charpentier’s Louise. The first major role there was that of Pinkerton in Madame Butterfly. In early 1920, Cazette sang small roles in operatic premieres, opposite Vanni-Marcoux and other famous singers. At the time competition among the tenors was rather high. Léon Beyle, David Devriès, Léon David, René Lapelletrie and Emile Marcelin appeared at the Opéra-Comique. His first great success was in Così fan tutte as Ferrando, conducted by Messager.
Louis Cazette rarely performed outside Paris. In 1922 he participated a in a performance of Don Giovanni. Yvonne Gall was Donna Anna, Aline Vallandri was Donna Elvira and Vanni-Marcoux sang the title role. Cazette was the only singer who gained a big success. His final new role was Des Grieux in which he appeared on March 9, 1922 for the first time. His last performance took place on April 28, 1922, in a performance of Don Giovanni, opposite Suzanne Balguerie and Vanni-Marcoux. The following afternoon he complained of a stiff neck (torticolis) and explained that he was unable to perform in the following performance of Mireille. The next day he was dead, aged 34. The offical version of his death was “suffering agony from having contracted tetanus.” According to Cazette’s daughter-in-law, Cazette was accidentally cut by a trident which was held by one of his colleagues, the baritone André Baugé. The tetanus infection set in and within a few days Cazette was dead.